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  3. Spin dynamics in the pseudogap state of a high-temperature superconductor

Tsuei thought that the ambiguous results came from the defects inside the HTS, so that they designed an experiment where both clean limit no defects and dirty limit maximal defects were considered simultaneously. But, since YBCO is orthorhombic, it might inherently have an admixture of s symmetry. Despite all these years, the mechanism of high- T c superconductivity is still highly controversial, mostly due to the lack of exact theoretical computations on such strongly interacting electron systems.

However, most rigorous theoretical calculations, including phenomenological and diagrammatic approaches, converge on magnetic fluctuations as the pairing mechanism for these systems. The qualitative explanation is as follows:.

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In a superconductor, the flow of electrons cannot be resolved into individual electrons, but instead consists of many pairs of bound electrons, called Cooper pairs. In conventional superconductors, these pairs are formed when an electron moving through the material distorts the surrounding crystal lattice, which in turn attracts another electron and forms a bound pair.

This is sometimes called the "water bed" effect. Each Cooper pair requires a certain minimum energy to be displaced, and if the thermal fluctuations in the crystal lattice are smaller than this energy the pair can flow without dissipating energy. This ability of the electrons to flow without resistance leads to superconductivity.

In a high- T c superconductor, the mechanism is extremely similar to a conventional superconductor, except, in this case, phonons virtually play no role and their role is replaced by spin-density waves. Just as all known conventional superconductors are strong phonon systems, all known high- T c superconductors are strong spin-density wave systems, within close vicinity of a magnetic transition to, for example, an antiferromagnet. When an electron moves in a high- T c superconductor, its spin creates a spin-density wave around it.

This spin-density wave in turn causes a nearby electron to fall into the spin depression created by the first electron water-bed effect again. Hence, again, a Cooper pair is formed. When the system temperature is lowered, more spin density waves and Cooper pairs are created, eventually leading to superconductivity.

Note that in high- T c systems, as these systems are magnetic systems due to the Coulomb interaction, there is a strong Coulomb repulsion between electrons. This Coulomb repulsion prevents pairing of the Cooper pairs on the same lattice site. The pairing of the electrons occur at near-neighbor lattice sites as a result.

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This is the so-called d -wave pairing, where the pairing state has a node zero at the origin. Examples of high- T c cuprate superconductors include La 1. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Superconductive behavior at temperatures much higher than absolute zero. Main article: Iron-based superconductor. Main article: Resonating valence bond theory. Main article: List of superconductors.

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Ars Technica. Archived from the original on 4 March Retrieved 2 March Ford; G. The rise of the superconductors. Boca Raton, Fla. Bibcode : ZPhyB.. Georg Bednorz, K. Retrieved Leggett Nature Physics. Bibcode : NatPh April 23, Bibcode : EL Bibcode : Natur. Nature News. Archived from the original on 18 August Retrieved 18 August Phys Rev B. Bibcode : PhRvB.. Superconductor: The race for the prize Television Episode.

Room-Temperature Superconductivity. Cambridge International Science Publishing, Cambridge.

Superconductivity - the challenge of no resistance at room temperature

Bibcode : cond. JSAP International. Archived PDF from the original on 16 August Bibcode : Sci Archived from the original on 3 July Maurice; Zhang, F. Physica C. Bibcode : PhyC..

Spin dynamics in the pseudogap state of a high-temperature superconductor

Physical Review B. Bibcode : NatPh.. Archived from the original on 23 December Retrieved 23 December Handbook of High-Temperature Superconductor Electronics.

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